Thursday, September 3, 2020
59 Novembers prior three men met up and structure the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP). They were Henry Milton Taylor, William. W. Cartwright, Cyril St. John Stevenson. They started meeting consistently talking about the advantages and disadvantages. They welcomed 7 men to go along with them however just 6 acknowledged the greeting. Henry Taylor was the Chairman, William was the treasurer and Cyril turned into the secretary. The gathering advanced in Nassau and chose to incorporate the external islands. At the point when sir. Lynden Piddling returned home from graduate school he joined the PLP party and that was the start of the way to dominant part rule.Sir Lynden Pindling, Randol Fawkes, Auther Hanna, Sir. Milo Butler Sr, Clarence Bain, Samuel Isaacs, and numerous other ladies and men arranged and planned to free there individuals from colonize. Around then racial isolation was a lifestyle in The Bahamas. The Ã¢â¬ËblacksÃ¢â¬â¢ were alluded to as minorities individuals. They were schools were shaded kids were not permitted to enter. They were places like lodgings, shops, and cafÃ©s were shading individuals were not permitted to feast. There were additionally holy places where minorities individuals were not permitted to sit in indistinguishable seats from the whites.In January 1954 the PLP held its first open gathering. In 1956 there was the primary political race. The Bay Street Boys began to get terrified that they would lose so they called the U. S. A cops saying a Negro pilgrim party was attempting to assume control over The Bahamas. A gathering of lady drove by Jorgina Symonette and others raised money to raise assets for the PLP. The PLP needed more assets to have fish fries, basic food item bins, free alcohol and gatherings to attempt to pay off the individuals like the Bay Street Boys did. The PLP would go around caps at gatherings to attempt to raise reserves however it was not enough.The Bay Street Boys gave out free cash to the individuals for th eir votes. They would tear the cash into equal parts and give half before the political decision and the other after in the event that they casted a ballot openly. On political decision eve the white possibility for Grand Bahama from the UBP paid the dark up-and-comer 1000 pounds to drop out. In the 1965 political race 6 PLP up-and-comers were chosen. They were Sir. Lynden Pindling, Randol Fawkes, Samuel Isaacs, Sir. Milo Butler, Cyril Stevenson and Clarence Bain; they were known as the eminent six. In 1958 a question broke out over the conveying of guests from the new Nassau air terminal at Windsor field.Tour organizations had been framed by the Bay Street Boys pushing out the Taxi drivers. On January 12 1958 there was a strike that broke that was exceptionally sensational and fruitful. On November first 1957 the taxi association under the authority of Sir, Clifford Darling and others hindered all traffic to and from NassauÃ¢â¬â¢s worldwide air terminal for a considerable length of time while the official officials looked on vulnerably. Battle To accomplish Majority Rule On January 13 1958, each inn and business was shut down totally. The PLP drove a blacklist along Bay Street. The laborers took to the streets and shouted out Ã¢â¬Å"Not a perspiration until our requests are metÃ¢â¬ .On January 19, 1959 Doris Johnson had solicited to address the House from Assembly and lead a gathering of lady to announce to cast a ballot. They were denied sir Stafford Sands by him saying Ã¢â¬Å"over his dead bodyÃ¢â¬â¢. On July 31 1961 the award of the WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s Suffrage Movement was passed and ladies had the option to cast a ballot. The PLP government started the dynamic push for instructive change in The Bahamas by making auxiliary training accessible to all Bahamians in 1967. This was critical to expelling the sizes of numbness from eyes of a people through a monstrous pledge to educate.The late Sir Cecil Wallace Whitfield, one of the individuals from the princi pal lion's share rule Cabinet, was given the assignment to improve and Bahamianize the instructive framework. Immense capital uses were made to duplicate and update essential and optional schools, to found specialized instruction and train new Bahamian educators. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s White Paper on Education accommodated the usage of wide boundary including instructors, guardians and understudies, and was strong of the high standards with the legislature pushed Ã¢â¬ self improvement, equity, the pride of work and administration duty and co-operation.The foundation of the PLP government likewise achieved another attitude toward financial turn of events. The goal was coordinated towards opening up more noteworthy financial and social open doors for the residents of The Bahamas and for more noteworthy adaptability of the economy. One of the significant fights to accomplish this goal was making Freeport Grand Bahama, protected and attractive for all Bahamians. During the 1970s, the PLP government propelled the Ã¢â¬Å"Social Revolution,Ã¢â¬ which incorporated the presentation of the National Insurance Scheme, an arrangement of standardized savings, which is proceeding with a monstrous minimal effort lodging programme.The PLP government likewise moved to improve the conveyance of medicinal services by adding an augmentation to the Princess Margaret Hospital, updating and building new polyclinics all through New Providence and the Family Islands. On April 27th 1965 was Black Tuesday. A horde of PLP supporters lead by the PLP director walked from Windsor Park to Bay Street and collected in the front of the House of Assembly. Inside the House the PLP individuals lead by Pindling unequivocally restricted the amendment of the bounties draft request. He pushed a national enrollment of voters.Outside the House of Assembly the PLP supporters shouted out Ã¢â¬Å"Amend, Amend Ã¢â¬Å", Ã¢â¬Å"Shame and Scandal in The HouseÃ¢â¬ . Sir Lynden, at that point Leader of the Opposition, during the warmed discussion over the issue of limits however in a painstakingly organized move got up and tossed the Mace, the SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s image of power, out of the window of the House of Assembly. He proclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"The authority of this Island has a place with the individuals Ã¢â¬Å"and tossed the mace out of the window. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, individuals outside and mace has a place outside with. Ã¢â¬ He yelled. After that Sir Milo Butler got up and tossed the two hour glass that were utilized to time to speakers out of the window.The UPB observed shockingly. Sir Lynden Pindling then drove the group singing the melody Ã¢â¬Å"We Shall OvercomeÃ¢â¬ . ACHIEVEING Majority Rule A political decision was then approached January tenth, 1967. This was on the grounds that in the Bible in the book of Exodus the Lord said he will free the offspring of Egypt on the tenth day of the main month. January tenth, 1967 was neither an end nor even a start. Rather, it was a significant achievement in an excursion that was started hundreds of years prior when some unknown slave struck a blow for opportunity just because. We interruption to give proper respect to the characters and players in this epic struggle.In a hard battled and serious political decision in 1967, the PLP conveyed the accompanying 18 individuals to a 38-part House of Assembly. They were: Lynden Pindling, Preston Albury, Clarence Bain, Milo Butler, Clifford Darling, Elwood Donaldson, Arthur Foulkes, Carlton Francis, Arthur Hanna, Warren Levarity, Curtis MacMillan, Uriah McPhee, Maurice Moore, Edmund Moxey, Jimmy Shepherd, George Thompson, Jeffrey Thompson and Cecil Wallace Whitfield. Randol Fawkes who effectively ran as Labor in 1962 and 1967 with the help of the PLP advocated the PLP and turned into an individual from the main Majority Rule cabinet.He figured noticeably in the development toward Majority Rule. Effective Independent up-and-comer Sir Alvin Braynen put his support behind the PLP a nd acknowledged the post of Speaker of the House. These two warriors for equity and opportunity steered the notorious result for the PLP and the main Majority Rule bureau was framed: This recognized gathering comprised of Cecil Wallace-Whitfield, Milo Butler, Arthur Hanna, Clarence Bain, Jeffrey Thompson, Carlton Francis, Randol Fawkes, Warren Levarity, Curtis McMillan, Clement T. Maynard and Lynden Pindling.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Racing as dull play - Research Paper Example The film shows a conveyance driver, Kowalsky, who consents to take a vehicle to San Francisco from Colorado. Kowasky is appeared as a forceful man who has endured a ton throughout everyday life and lost all his friends and family. From streak maneuvers in the film, the crowd is informed that life has not been simple on him as he endured wounds in the war with Vietnam and was likewise indicted for tranquilize charges after he prevented his accomplice from submitting assault. Tired with life, he takes off at fast to take out the disappointment he had inside him for such huge numbers of years. In spite of the fact that his goals were not to hurt anybody out and about, Kowalsky is depicted as an insubordinate man who is eager to accept any test as it comes. The police before long learn of a quick driver out and about and the pursuit among Kowalsky and police starts. He before long turns out to be exceptionally well known and the media begins revealing him on radio and papers. The film fi nally shows how he evades the police and figures out how to keep away from the snares they lay for him. In the wake of playing all the catch and mouse game, the man with no reason throughout everyday life (Kowalsky) purposefully hits his vehicle against a truck and ends it all (Berra). At the point when I firmly broke down the film I infiltrated that Kowasky hit the street at any rate understanding the outcomes he would need to confront. It was much the same as a standard errand just this one had a little forceful way to deal with it. Kowalsky didn't expect to pick up the consideration of the cops when he began his excursion and a progression of occasions made him a casualty to the police. He was a player who didn't have a clue about the sort of wreckage he would get in. His activities were sudden and however he later realized it could get him in a tough situation, he thought about it as he began to savor the second he was living in. It caused him to feel significant and mainstream and he was a lot more joyful to be in an unsafe state like this than to play safe in seclusion (Berra). Cape dread is a great case of a film that mentally investigates the components of profound play. Coordinated by Martin Scorsese, the film shows a lawyer, Sam, shielding his family from a man he once safeguarded in court. Max Cady, an inked, overwhelming smoker and an alcoholic was sentenced for assault which he accepted he didn't carry out and was not liable of the wrongdoing. He censured Sam for his foolishness in taking care of the case and asserted it was a direct result of him that he needed to endure 14 years in jail. Once out of jail, Max begins to follow Sam and his family. At the point when Sam becomes more acquainted with this he hopes to take help from the police and gets Max charged for following him and his family. This maddens Max much more and he gets more wrathful than any time in recent memory. It drives Max to murder one of SamÃ¢â¬â¢s partner with whom Sam had a n unsanctioned romance. This leaves Sam with no other choice yet to empty his home and live in a spot far away from the insane executioner. Be that as it may, Max anyway tails him and regardless of all the insurance Sam could give his family, Max attempts to attack them. It winds up wrecked when max is deluded by SamÃ¢â¬â¢s little girl, who he mixed up as an accessory, and is wounded by her. At long last Sam figures out how to dispose of Max by executing him in self preservation to ensure his family (Chibnall) I broke down components of profound play in MaxÃ¢â¬â¢s character. This film shows how Max begins with a little wrongdoing of following that prompts greater violations of slaughtering individuals around him. He didn't have to slaughter SamÃ¢â¬â¢s partner yet the retaliation against Sam had crossed all
Friday, August 21, 2020
Suggestion letter - Coursework Example On fruition of her subsequent degree, she was elevated to the job of a pharmaceutical instructor. From that point forward, she has demonstrated us directly through her brilliant abilities in preparing helps and her fitness in scholarly aptitudes. As of now, as a pharmaceutical instructor, she teaches cardiovascular patients on the antiplatelet treatment. She is additionally a decent cooperative person and had the option to viably speak with patients, their families and her partners prompting incredible accomplishment in the cardiovascular patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment and treatment results during the period. Aside from instructing patients and families on antiplatelet treatment, she has likewise been encouraging the procurement of the medications required for treatment. From my perception, she genuinely has an enthusiasm for the field of medication and shows at least a bit of kindness for the patients. Her past competency shows that she can make enormous progress for the organization once she is offered the new position. I consequently suggest her for the situation of with no booking. With much excitement; I decidedly anticipate your ideal thought of her
Tuesday, June 9, 2020
As a young writer in a time of brewing class tensions, Marx studied the historical and present relationship between the classes and wrote several works, including The German Ideology (1845-46) and Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848). In his study of the history of society, Marx elucidates a trend in society toward an increase in production of commodities but a decrease in the standard of living, culminating in an inevitable proletariat revolution. This revolution, according to Marx, would result in a system of communism throughout the industrial nations. However, in the same writings of that period, Marxs tone encourages the proletariat to join his Communist Party, and in the Manifesto outrightly calls on the working men of all nations to unite (Manifesto of the Communist Party p. 500). Since Marx assumes in his historical analysis that communism is the inevitable culmination of the class struggles, and that men in desperate enough conditions will eventually join together to over throw the entire political and social system, why does Marx see the need to actively recruit new members for his party? The answer can be found in realizing that Marxs two lines of logic, on the economic and political trends of history, complement each other; Marxs political activism is action taken within the framework of his theory.In Marxs early works, he follows two lines of logic: the analysis of capitalism and history, concluding that society is headed towards communism; and the analysis of politics and history, to elucidate the agency by which the classes act. To understand Marxs claim that communism will be the inevitable end point that society is hurtling toward, one must first understand his theory of history and how capitalism fits into the model. Unlike his predecessors, who theorized that changes in society were based on conquest, Marxs model sees the underlying theme of history to be the change in the mode of production, which is determined by the role of labor. The m ode of production is characterized by the extent of the division of labor. The existing stage in the division of labour determines also the relations of individuals to one another with reference to the material, instrument, and product of labor, says Marx (The German Ideology p.151). Thus, as the mode of production improves, the division of labor will also be more defined. The extent of the division of labor determines the class structure and class relations. However, because the mode of production will advance, it will outgrow the social structure, leading to changes in the social structure (Manifesto of the Communist Party p. 475).Marx begins his historical analysis with early agrarian societies, in which production was undeveloped and people lived by hunting, fishing, or agriculture-laboring entirely for a use value, and not an exchange value. The corresponding social structure was one of an extended family, with chieftain, tribe members, and nominally slaves (The German Ideology p. 151). This agrarian society defines the role of labor in a way that is similar to Marxs envisioned communism, but it could not last, according to Marx, because its production could increase, changing the social and political structure of society. Later, increased division of labor transformed the agrarian society an ancient communal and State ownership, with a citizen/slave class relation in which the labor of the slaves became the basis of the production. On the other hand, out in the country, feudal or estate property was established, due to the decrease in the population, and therefore a decrease in the available labor. In the feudal system, the difference in the mode of production led to a working class of serfs (instead of slaves), therefore retaining a different but still antagonistic relationship between the serfs and the nobility (The German Ideology p. 152-153). Thus, from this empirical data, Marx concludes that although the mode of production changes the class structu re, there has always been class struggle, whether between the slaves and masters or between the serfs and lords.From the serfs, then, sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed (Manifesto of the Communist Party p. 474). As expected, the transition to the bourgeois society did not do away with the class struggle. Rather, the tension between the bourgeois and the proletariat increased, because the productive system is arranged so that competition between laborers makes living conditions increasingly worse for the proletariat, in such a way that in order to ameliorate their situation, they must overthrow the current system. The proletarians, if they are to assert themselves as individuals, will have to abolish the very condition of their existence hitherto, namely labor  In order, therefore, to assert themselves as individuals, they must overthrow the State (The German Ideology p. 200). Thus, by logic , Marx reasons that since the conditions will only get worse, eventually the proletariat must join together and establish a new social system-communism.Marxs line of logic follows the trends of history and extrapolates what will happen in the future, following his underlying theme of class struggles in each type of society. However, his analysis of the trends of history lack an explanation of a mechanism by which societies evolve; he just assumes that they happen. In his description of the expected communist revolution, he describes how in the beginning the proletariat cannot succeed because they are disorganized, but that they will swell in numbers and organize, eventually leading to the violent, glaring character of revolt (Manifesto of the Communist Party p. 480-481). Yet how will the proletariat organize, and how will they revolt? Marx does not explain the mechanism by which the transition from the bourgeois society to the communism will occur in his social/economic theory.Marxs beliefs in how the transition should take place can be found in his analysis of the trends in politics throughout history. In his study of the past transitions, especially the transition from feudalism to bourgeois, he notes that the change in the type of labor available, and therefore the mode of production, is the basis of the social class. Then, the social class that has power groups together to seize the political power: Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of that class (Manifesto of the Communist Party p. 475). With the communists, Marx posits that the same order must follow, that there is first the organization of the proletariat into a social class, and then into a political class, although the transition into a unified political party is not necessarily smooth. This organization of the proletarians into a class, and consequently into a political party, is continually being upset again by the competition betwee n workers themselves (Manifesto of the Communist Party p. 481). With the political power, the ruling class is then able to pass legislation to reinforce its class, and therefore the class division between the ruling class and the laborers. Thus, while it is the change in the role of labor and the mode of production that are the driving forces behind changing societal structures, it is the political class that legitimizes and maintains that class structure.Given the importance of political power, it naturally follows that Marx should establish his Communist Party as a political group striving for power. Every class which is struggling for mastery, even when its domination, as is the case with the proletariat, postulates the abolition of the old form of society in its entirety and of domination itself, must first conquer for itself political power in order to represent its interest in turn as the general interest, writes Marx (The German Ideology p. 161). By organizing, the Communists can offer a party beside which the desperate proletariat can rally, thus helping to centralize and organize the proletariat social class into a political class. This organization and centralization is one of the steps that Marx defines in the evolution of the proletariat (Manifesto of the Communist Party p. 480-481). Additionally, by gaining political power, the Communists gain legitimacy with the majority of society, the proletariat, and can facilitate the transition into a communist society.Thus, to answer the question of why Marx feels that it is necessary to recruit members for the Communist party, we see that while Marx felt that the turn to communism was an eventual certainty, he did not stipulate that it would happen spontaneously, or without direction. Rather, he recognizes that an important step along the path to communism is to organize around a political party with a strong leader, which. For Marx sees his time period as one in which a social class has been firmly establ ished, but the political class has not, and therefore Marx is fulfilling the next stage in the process of transition. In fact, while Marx may recognize the inevitability of the rise in communism, this transition cannot take place if the proletariat is not aware of the existence of the Communist Party or the platform of the Communists. Therefore, Marxs recruitment and advertising of the Communist Party is merely fulfilling one of the stages along the road to his envisioned end.It is also necessary to remain aware that the reader sees Marx in a dual role: one as a historian/philosopher, and the other as an activist. Marx says, The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it (Theses on Feuerbach p. 145). We can see that Marx was not one who believed that a philosophers job was done after theorizing and writing; rather, he believed that action is necessary to change the world, and therefore took a role within the framework of his ow n writings. Marxs scientific reasoning leads him to conclude that the rise of communism is inevitable, with or without him; Marxs social conscience dictates that he take a role in the revolution. Thus we read documents by a Marx who is theoretical and scientific, and yet the documents take the tone of a Marx who is promoting the agenda within his theory.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Philippine Deforestation: Final Paper Deforestation is one of the most crucial problem of the Philippines today, because of poor economic performance, weak polices, legal institutions and government laws, increasing population, poverty, corruption , agricultural expansion and lastly, extensive commercial logging activities. Philippines is a beautiful country rich in its biodiversity and natural resources, the country has 7,107 islands with a land area of 300,000 square kilometers. Unfortunately, the total forest cover in the Philippines has dramatically declined by 80% from 1900 to 2000. The forest is now down to 17.9% of the whole country. Philippines fall in the category of one of fastest loss of forest cover around the world. According to World Bank Statistics, Ã¢â¬Å"Philippines ranks 4th among the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top 10 most threatened forest hotspots. If 157,400 ha per year rate of deforestation continues than the Philippines remaining forest cover will be eradicated in less th an 40 yearsÃ¢â¬ (World Bank Statistic 2012). According to World Resources Institute, Ã¢â¬Å"stagnant economies and increasing population have degraded the land in the Philippines, and deforestation is caused because of the ever increasing agriculture and illegal loggingÃ¢â¬ (World Resources Institute 2012). Before the Spanish Colonization of Philippines, over 90% of the whole country was covered by rainforest. For a period of 300 years, Spanish colonists began to settle in the Philippines where they createdShow MoreRelatedDeforestation: A Major Reason for Global Warming753 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Topic: Climate Change Research question: How is deforestation a major reason for global warming? Deforestation is cutting down of trees for some purpose (furniture). 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However, the classical theorist cannot find the logic and moral responsibility of cutting down profits that should have been due to the investors as their basic legal right as owners of the corporation and managers should not disregard in their
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
hey guys dunes this is Jacob Clippard welcome to ac/dc econ one of the 0:03 Twilight movies the Harry Potter movies and the whole or in the Rings trilogy 0:07 haven t gotten there are based on books right so they all had economies of scale 0:11 before you jump into it keep in mind that economist differentiate between the 0:20 short run in the long run in the short run at least one input or resource in 0:25 the production process is fixed I made a video about it check it out in this 0:28 video I m gonna talk about corruption in the long run when all resources are 0:31 variable and let s start by looking at what happens that output as a company as 0:35 more and more resources if a firmware to double its inputs there s only three 0:38 possible thing that could happen to output there are more than double it 0:42 could double or less than double that the idea of returns to scale if output 0:47 more than doubles that affirms experiencing increasing returns to scale 0:50 because getting bigger is better 0:52 this happens because they can use mass production techniques that smaller firms 0:55 can t not output doubles than that company has constant returns to scale it 0:59 kind of maxed out on the gains of getting bigger 1:02 output less than doubles then they re experiencing decreasing returns to scale 1:06 they re just too big so return to scale show what happened to production in the 1:09 long run 1:10 what happens the cops the TV show how it s made it shows how companiesShow MoreRelatedProduct Placement10682 Words Ã |Ã 43 PagesProduct placement, or embedded marketing, is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. Product placement became common in the 1980s. In April 2006, Broadcasting Cable reported, Two thirds of advertisers employ branded entertainmentÃ¢â¬âproduct placementÃ¢â¬âwith the vast majorityRead MoreProduct Placement10670 Words Ã |Ã 43 PagesProduct placement, or embedded marketing, is a form of advertisement, where branded goods or services are placed in a context usually devoid of ads, such as movies, the story line of television shows, or news programs. The product placement is often not disclosed at the time that the good or service is featured. Product placement became common in the 1980s. In April 2006, Broadcasting Cable reported, Two thirds of advertisers employ branded entertainmentÃ¢â¬âproduct placementÃ¢â¬âwith the vast majorityRead MoreVampire Diaries61771 Words Ã |Ã 248 Pagesburied deep beneath the surfaceÃ¢â¬âand that part was screaming danger at her. Some instinct older than civilization was telling her to run, to flee. She didnt move. Dont miss these exciting books from HarperPaperbacks! THE VAMPIRE DIARIES: A TRILOGY L. J. Smith Volume I The Awakening Volume II The Struggle Volume III The Fury HORROR HIGH Nicholas Adams Mr. Popularity Resolved: Youre Dead Heartbreaker New Kid on the Block Hard Rock Sudden Death Pep Rally Final Curtain Another horrorRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 PagesManagement Course: MBAÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management California College for Health Sciences MBA Program McGraw-Hill/Irwin abc McGrawÃ¢ËâHill Primis ISBN: 0Ã¢Ëâ390Ã¢Ëâ58539Ã¢Ëâ4 Text: Effective Behavior in Organizations, Seventh Edition Cohen Harvard Business Review Finance Articles The Power of Management Capital FeigenbaumÃ¢ËâFeigenbaum International Management, Sixth Edition HodgettsÃ¢ËâLuthansÃ¢ËâDoh Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition JonesÃ¢ËâGeorge Driving Shareholder Value MorinÃ¢ËâJarrell Leadership, Fifth
Question: Discuss about theBuilding and Construction in Victoria Australia for Policies. Answer: Building and construction industry in the 21st century is growing at an alarming rate, and the government and investors are on toes to ensure that they utilize all the opportunities available. The growth of the industry can be attributed to the world population that is increasing gradually, and people are moving from the traditional way of the housing to modern designs. As a result of this developing countries have a challenge in due to low labor and skills to put up the modern housing facilities. This has led to shifting of experts among other personnel in the industry from one country to another. However much this may seem to be simple, there are precautions required before an individual or an organization sets up construction and building business in a foreign country. Before setting up the business, the proprietor requires services of a consultant to ensure that they are aware of the various regulations, policies, and laws that govern a particular state(Berardi, 2012). Australia is an example of the states that have attracted foreign investors in the construction and building industry. In this piece of work, the first section will focus on Australian legal system, areas, and sources of law and the professional codes of practice in the construction industry and in the second section it will focus on system of codes, regulations, standards, and legislation that apply to the industry in Victoria generally, and specifically to the Chadstone residential project. Australian law comprises of both uncodified and codified forms in the various levels of operation. The forms of law include the constitution, the legislature which is enacted by the Australian federal parliament, regulations by government bodies and common law which is usually as a result of a decision by the judges. The constitution serves as the supreme source of law in Australia that divides powers between federal government, states, and territories. Each of these divisions has their jurisdiction and system of courts as well as parliaments. The Australian framework of the constitution is unique in such a way that it combines elements of US and Westminster government system. The federal legislature has the authority and power to pass laws related to different areas of governance(Clarke, 2002). The laws adopted by the legislature overrides other related state and territory laws that exist. However, Legislature have power have enact laws overexpress areas as opposed to state legislat ure who can enact a law on any subject. At both federal and national levels, Australian substantive law is related as it derived English common law system. The Australian high court is supreme and listens to appeals from state and federal courts on matters related to them. The common laws serve both the state and the territories. Australia has sources of law which can be categorized into federal and state. The main source of law is the federal constitution. The constitution states the powers vested in Australian federal parliament. Another source of law that affects the building and construction business is common law. This is the law that covers ordinary citizens through courts and courts of appeal. The law ensures there is uniformity and all decisions about the common law are made in a court(Hutchinson, 2010). International Law is another source of law used in Australia. International law is applied when the country gets into a bilateral or multilateral treaty. In the Australian building and construction industry, there have been some standards that have been developed with the aim of promoting efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness. In this context, a standard is a documentation that provides guidelines, rules and details of activities technical specification undertaken in building and construction(Lingard, 2005). A number of the standards are referenced in regulations which include Building Code of Australia which implies that it is mandatory to carry out activities in a particular which is specified. Some of the standards include but not limited to design standards which are related to consideration of people with disabilities when designing residential structures. Product and test method standards are related to doors, windows, and roofing that are used in the course of building. Installation and product standards are associated to the fitting of safety equipment such as smoke detectors in a building. External and internal waterproo fing standards are related to how residential dwellings structured to avoid waterlogging. Building Act It was established in 1975 with the aim of governing all the building works in Australia. The building act empowers regulation of various aspects of structures and building which include administrative terms vital in giving effect to the laws. The building act has approval forms that are a must-have requirement for any person venturing into building and construction. The approval forms are of importance in administration and development related issues in Australia(Briggs, 2005). Before an individual is allowed to get into the business, the local government planning has a provision of standard suite forms that must be filled to show that one will comply with the legislative requirements in the course of undertaking the building work. The building act states that all buildings should be constructed as per the Building Code of Australia. Building Code of Australia (BCA) Building Code of Australia (BCA) is a uniform arrangement of specialized provisions for the plan and development of buildings and different structures across Australia. The BCA is generated and guarded by Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB), and a legal effect is given through the Building Act 1975. Annually, the BCA has reviewed amendments made to accommodate the changes that may have emerged in regulatory and technical specifications. It is important to be updated with basic changes that happen every year to ensure that the cost of construction work is in line with the code as well avoiding of disputes in contracts. ABCB aims at achieving national consistency to the standards. ABCB is an initiative of the National Government in conjunction with states and territories(Clegg, 2002). ABCB is focused on health, safety, sustainability and amenity issues through the implementation of National Construction Code (NCC). NCC comprises the BCA and Plumbing Code of Australia that acts under the Plumbing and Drainage Act of 2002(Hampson, 2004). The BCA has reference documents in their support that provide specific details regarding building and construction industry. The reference documents are read together with Building Act have two volumes; one on commercial buildings (class 2 to 9 buildings) and the second one on residential buildings (Class 1 and 10 buildings). For any person who would like to access BCA, it is free of charge on the ABCB's website after registration. Building and Construction Industry Payments Act (BCIPA) BCIPA is set in place to ensure that all parties that are involved in an employment contract in the construction and building industry are given adequate protection so that they can receive payments for all works undertaken. The BCIPA covers commercial construction contracts but be extended to residential building work through a subcontractor with a residential project calling upon the Payment Act when demanding payments from the prime contractor(Loosemore, 2007). For an individual or an organization to be protected by BCIPA, there must be a strict adherence to procedures and provisions set for payments progress. The progress payments include payment periods, claims and schedules. If one does not receive payments after making a payment claim, according to BCIPA, one can involve adjudication which is a payment dispute resolution process(Creighton, 2005). According to BCIPA, there are documents that must be in place for payment security. The documents include payment claim, tax invoice , payment schedule and adjudication form. BCIPA is administered by building and Construction Industry Payments Agency which is a branch of Building and Construction Commission (BCC). The agency is responsible for processing and administering adjudication applications. The Agency also provides legislation to have all adjudicators employed are qualified to handle the applications. Fair Work Act This an Act that was established in 2009 to regulate relation matters in workplaces all over Australia. When new employees are brought on board, employers are required to issue them with a Fair Work Information Statement. The Fair Work Information statement enlightens the workers they are required to serve under in any place of work(Sweet, 2012). It is therefore important for the foreigner venturing into the building and construction business that will employ people to know what Fair Work Act requires them to do. Under Fair Work Act are coded such as Small Business Dismissal Code. The dismissal code gives the steps required to be followed by a small business employer when dismissing an employee. When an employee is dismissed without following the set code, Fair Work Australia can take action towards the organization. National Employment Standards (NES) NES is part of Fair Work Act of 2009. When a foreigner gets into Australia and sets up a building and construction business which is under private sector, all the employees are subjected to ten minimum legal standards. The ten standards include: Definition of maximum working hours Right for parents to request flexible work arrangements Explanation of parental leave Explanation of annual leave Personal and compassionate leave Community service leave Long service leave Statement of public holidays Redundancy pay and termination notice Fair Work Information Statement issuance to employees. References List Berardi, U., 2012. Sustainability assessment in the construction sector: rating systems and rated buildings. Sustainable Development, 20(6), pp. 411-424. Briggs, C. a. B. J., 2005. Work, commerce, and the law: a new Australian model?. Australian Economic Review, 38(2), pp. 182-191. Clarke, F., 2002. The history of Australia. 1 ed. s.l.: Greenwood Publishing Group. Clegg, S. P. T. R.-P. T. a. M. M., 2002. Governmentality matters: designing an alliance culture of inter-organizational collaboration for managing projects. Organization Studies, 23(3), pp. 317-337. Creighton, W. a. S. A., 2005. Labour law. In: Sydney: Federation Press, pp. 105-108. Hampson, K. a. B. P., 2004. Construction 2020-A vision for Australia's property and construction industry. 1st ed. s.l.: CRC Construction Innovation. Hutchinson, T., 2010. Researching and writing in law. 1 ed. s.l.: Lawbook Co./Thomson Reuters. Lingard, H. a. R. S., 2005. Occupational health and safety in construction project management.. 1 ed. s.l.: Taylor Francis. Loosemore, M. a. A. N., 2007. Barriers to implementing OHS reformsThe experiences of small subcontractors in the Australian Construction Industry. International Journal of Project Management, 25(6), pp. 579-588. Sweet, J. a. S. M., 2012. Legal aspects of architecture, engineering, and the construction process. 1 ed. s.l.: Nelson Education.